Indicators - complete list

A full overview of all the indicators in MOSJ.

Indicators

  • Air temperature and precipitation

    Temperature and precipitation are key climatic factors that influence ecosystems and human activity.…

  • Arctic fox

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) named the arctic fox one of 10 flagship species to illustrate the impacts of climate change.…

  • Arctic fox bag

    The arctic fox is "critically endangered" in mainland Norway, where the Nature Diversity Act designates it as a "prioritised species", but Svalbard has a strong and…

  • Atmospheric transport of pollutants to the Barents Sea

    Environmental pollutants are carried to the Barents Sea by both air and ocean currents, but the atmosphere is the fastest, most efficient mode of transport.…

  • Beach litter in Svalbard

    Litter is causing extensive pollution of the seas, contaminating the shores, the seabed and the water itself. Animals may suffer considerable injury and suffering.…

  • Biomass of polar cod in the Barents Sea

    The polar cod is the only strictly pelagic fish species in the Barents Sea. It is adapted to Arctic water masses, with temperatures down to freezing point.…

  • Black-legged kittiwake

    The kittiwake obtains its food on the surface and hence functions as an indicator for this part of the marine ecosystem.…

  • Brünnich’s guillemot

    Since the Brünnich’s guillemot feeds on key species in the ecosystem and is so abundant, it may be a good indicator for the productivity of the ecosystem.…

  • Capelin stock in the Barents Sea

    Capelin are important prey for many species of fish, seabirds and marine mammals, and fluctuations in the capelin stock may influence them.…

  • Climate gases in Svalbard

    The most important greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4).…

  • Common eider

    Eiders are monitored as they feed on benthic organisms and therefore can be an indicator for this part of the ecosystem.…

  • Common guillemot

    The common guillemot is a food specialist which, in the breeding season, chiefly lives on pelagic fish such as capelin and herring.…

  • Cruise tourism

    Cruise tourism in Svalbard has increased considerably in the last 10–15 years.…

  • Duration of snow cover on land

    Snow cover is an indicator of climate change, since it is controlled by both temperature and precipitation.…

  • Fishing mortality in the Barents Sea

    The Barents Sea is an important area for the fisheries and large quantities of important fish like northeast arctic cod, northeast arctic haddock, deep-sea redfish,…

  • Glaucous gull

    The glaucous gull's position uppermost in the food chain makes it susceptible to pollutants, and the species is listed as Near Threatened in the 2010 Norwegian Red List.…

  • Golden redfish stock in the Barents Sea

    The common redfish is classified as a threatened species. The population is small and continues to fall. Measures to improve the situation have been initiated in recent years.

  • Harp seal

    Harp seals are monitored because the population can be affected by hunting and the species is dependent upon ice and may be affected by climate change.…

  • Harp seal catch

    Harp seals are now hunted in two areas: the West Ice (the Greenland Sea near Jan Mayen) and the East Ice (the southeastern part of the Barents Sea and the White Sea).…

  • Hooded seal

    The stock of hooded seal has declined steadily after the last war, even after harvesting regulations were imposed in the 1960s.…

  • Individual travellers

    The traffic has a potential for having negative effects on birds, mammals and cultural heritage sites.…

  • Mass balance for glaciers in Svalbard

    Melting glaciers are in focus due to climate change and rising temperatures. In Svalbard, several glaciers are monitored to detect the potential loss of mass.…

  • Overnight stays in Longyearbyen

    The number of overnight stays in public accommodation in Longyearbyen in the course of a year gives an indication of the influx of tourists and other visitors to…

  • PCB in bottom sediments near the settlements in Svalbard

    The levels of PCB in surface soil in the Russian settlements in Svalbard are considerable.…

  • Permafrost

    An important aspect of climate change in the Arctic is melting of the permafrost.…

  • Polar bear

    The polar bear in the Barents Sea lives on disappearing sea ice. Climate warming is the main threat to polar bears.…

  • Polar bear take

    Polar bears used to be hunted extensively in Svalbard, but the species has been totally protected since 1973. Few are now killed.…

  • Pollutants in Arctic foxes in Svalbard

    In Svalbard, the Arctic fox is a top predator and carrion eater feeding on the terrestrial and marine food chains, thus being exposed to high pollutant levels.…

  • Pollutants in Brünnich’s guillemots

    The population of Brünnich’s guillemot has suffered a serious decline over the last decade, due to partially unknown reasons.…

  • Pollutants in capelin

    Capelin have relatively low levels of environmental contaminants. Thus far, there does not appear to have been any change over time.…

  • Pollutants in char

    Pollutant levels in char are generally low in the Arctic. Some of the highest PCB values in arctic freshwater fish are, nevertheless, measured in stationary char from…

  • Pollutants in glaucous gulls

    The glaucous gull is at the top of the food chain and exposed to excessively high amounts of persistent organic pollutants.…

  • Pollutants in harbour seals

    The harbour seal is a top predator and lives mostly on fish. This puts it at risk for high levels of pollutants.…

  • Pollutants in lake sediments

    Pollutant levels in lake sediments are generally low in the Arctic. They are classified as insignificantly to moderately polluted.…

  • Pollutants in polar bears

    The total stress of pollutants in polar bears in Svalbard is dominated by fat-soluble organic pollutants, their metabolites and perfluorinated compounds.…

  • Pollutants in ringed seals

    Moderate levels of contaminants are found in ringed seals from Svalbard. Ringed seals are the polar bear's main prey, and moderate pollutant levels in ringed seals may…

  • Pollution in Arctic cod

    The Arctic cod feeds on large plankton, and is an important food item for other fish such as cod, and for seals, whales and sea birds.…

  • Radioactivity in fish

    Caesium-137 (Cs-137) is a radioactive substance with a half-life of about 30 years. Cs-137 is soluble in sea water and mainly follows the ocean currents.…

  • Sea ice extent in the Barents Sea and Fram Strait

    It is important to monitor the extent of sea ice because it is vital for the climate in the Arctic and globally, and because it sets important limits for the ecosystems in…

  • Sea level

    Should a single quantity need to be applied to describe the climate on the Earth, it would probably have to be the global sea level.…

  • Stock of deep-sea redfish in the Barents Sea

    The stock of deep-sea redfish is on the upswing. While recruitment to the stock was weak from 1996 to 2004, it has since picked up.

  • Stock of northeast arctic cod

    The spawning stock of northeast arctic cod is at a high level. The northeast arctic cod is the largest cod stock in the world and has been important for Norwegian…

  • Stock of young herring in the Barents Sea

    In recent years, the herring stocks has declined, but now seems to have stabilized.…

  • Svalbard ptarmigan bag

    The bag of Svalbard ptarmigan is monitored as part of the effort to ensure that the hunting will not have negative effects on the population.…

  • Svalbard reindeer

    Management of the Svalbard reindeer, which is only found in Svalbard, is an all-Norwegian responsibility.…

  • Svalbard reindeer bag

    The bag of Svalbard reindeer is monitored as part of the effort to ensure that the hunting will not have undesirable effects on the population.…

  • Svalbard rock ptarmigan

    The Svalbard ptarmigan is the small-game species that is harvested most in Svalbard.…

  • Temperature and salinity in the Fram Strait

    The West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) is the only current transporting warm (>3°C) Atlantic water into the Arctic Ocean.…

  • The number of registered snowmobiles

    The number of snowmobiles registered in Svalbard is monitored because the figure is thought to correlate with the amount of traffic outside the settlements and thus with…

  • The transport of freshwater through the Fram Strait

    The transport of freshwater in the East Greenland Current through the Fram Strait is monitored because it can affect the regional climate in northern Europe.…

  • Thickness of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean measured in the Fram Strait

    The ice cover in the Arctic Ocean is a vital factor for the climate both globally and in the Arctic, and it also sets important limits for the ecosystems in the Arctic.…

  • UV in Ny-Ålesund

    Excessive doses of ultraviolet (UV) radiation can damage the development and growth of plants and microorganisms, and cause, for example, sunburn and skin cancer in humans.…

  • Walrus

    The Svalbard walrus population was hunted to near extinction hundreds of years ago and remains Red Listed (Vulnerable) today.…

  • Zooplankton biomass in the Barents Sea

    Since the middle of the 1900s, we have seen a reduction in the amount of zooplankton in the Norwegian part of the Barents Sea.…

  • Zooplankton species composition in Kongsfjorden

    The Kongsfjorden pelagic ecosystem is influenced by both Atlantic and Arctic waters.…